1. if we consider a gallon of gas as having 100 units of energy, and

1. If we consider a gallon of gas as having 100 units of energy, and 25 of those units are used to move the car, what law of thermodynamics accounts for the other 75 units of energy? (Points : 2)
the first law
the second law


2. Which of these is not a component of a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)? (Points : 3)
adenosine
phosphate
deoxyribose sugar
ribose sugar


3. Glycolysis is a sequence of ______ chemical reactions. (Points : 3)
nine
six
five
ten


4. Exergonic reactions produce products with a ___ energy level than that of the initial reactants. (Points : 3)
lower
higher
the same


5. When chemical X is reduced, which of these expressions would be an accurate representation of its reduced state? (Points : 3)
XO
XH
X
HX


6. Most enzymes are which kind of organic compound? (Points : 3)
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
none of the above


7. The area on an enzyme where the substrate attaches is called the: (Points : 3)
active site
allosteric site
anabolic site
inactive site


8. Which of the following creatures would not be an autotroph? (Points : 3)
cactus
cyanobacteria
fish
palm tree


9. The process by which most of the world’s autotrophs make their food is known as: (Points : 3)
glycolysis
photosynthesis
chemosynthesis
herbivory


10. Plants are the only organisms that use ATP for the transfer and storage of energy. (Points : 2)
True
False


11. The colors of light in the visible range (from longest wavelength to shortest) are: (Points : 3)
ROYGBIV
VIBGYOR
GRBIYV
ROYROGERS


12. Chlorophyll is a green pigment because it absorbs only the green part of the visible light spectrum. (Points : 2)
True
False


13. The photosynthetic pigment that is essential for the process to occur is: (Points : 3)
chlorophyll a
chlorophyll b
beta carotene
xanthocyanin


14. A photosystem is: (Points : 3)
a collection of hydrogen-pumping proteins
a series of electron-accepting proteins arranged in the thylakoid membrane
a collection of photosynthetic pigments arranged in a thylakoid membrane
found only in prokaryotic organisms


15. Which of these molecules is NOT a product of the Electron Transport System? (Points : 3)
ATP
Water
Pyruvate
NAD+


16. The dark reactions require all of these chemicals to proceed except: (Points : 3)
ATP
NADPH
carbon dioxide
oxygen


17. The structural unit of photosynthesis, where the photosystems are located, are called: (Points : 3)
chlorophylls
eukaryotes
stroma
thylakoids


18. Which of the following does NOT occur during the light independent process? (Points : 3)
CO2 is used to form carbohydrates
NADPH converts to NADP
ADP converts to ATP
ATP converts to ADP


19. The production of ATP that occurs in the presence of oxygen is called: (Points : 3)
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
chemiosmosis
photosynthesis


20. The first stable chemical formed by the Calvin Cycle is: (Points : 3)
RuBP
RU/18
PGA
PGAL

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