Using as references:
Title: Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions
Edition: 6th (2015)
Author: Doherty, Regina and Purtilo, Ruth
Publisher: Elsevier Science Book
- Read Chapter 7: “Living Ethically as a Member of the Interprofessional Care Team” in the book Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions (6th ed.)
- Read Chapter 8: “Living Ethically Within Healthcare Organizations” in the book Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions (6th ed.)
Discuss whether moral convictions regarding the provision of healthcare should be considered a right, a privilege, entitlement, or an act of charity.
In two diferent paragrah give your personal opinion to Joseph Myers and Linnette Curtis-Dickey
*Discuss whether parents should be permitted to administer pubertal blockers to their children until the children are able to self-identify.
This is just my opinion and viewpoints on the above question and my intent is not to persuade, or anger anyone. I feel that parents should not be permitted to administer pubertal blockers to their children until the children are able to self identify. I feel that sexual orientation starts in the home an how you groom that child as he/she is hitting those milestones as they pertain to the different ages and stages of that young persons life. I also feel that we should do a better job as parents in talking to our children about the changes they will be facing within their body as they grow up, the information that we give to our children should also co-inside with the sex education curriculum that they receive in school. We have to start having these open dialog with our children about same sex dating and gender identification no matter how painful the conversation may be. I feel that the pubertal blockers could be used adversely by parents that think they are doing the right thing for their child by providing this treatment as a blanket drug. You have to understand that puberty in girls start at the age of 9-14 and in boys ages 12-16 and during this time they are still trying to figure out what it is to be a young man or woman. In my mind I can see this medication being used incorrectly and it’s taking away the child’s ability of “choice” by the parents.
Discuss the potential moral, ethical, and legal ramifications of refusing emergency care to an illegal alien who does not have the ability to pay for services.
Unfortunately, undocumented immigrants have the highest rate of being uninsured in the United States (US) and the lowest rate for utilization of healthcare. Even the legal immigrants will end of dropping their Medicaid medical coverage for fear of exposing their undocumented family members, therefore impacting the overall health for the entire family. As undocumented immigrants, they do not have access to government healthcare programs (Medicare, Medicaid) and are not protected under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Some states have limited programs for these individuals (ie. free or sliding-scale clinics), but most of them rely on hospital emergency rooms to receive care. These issues directly conflict with the obligations of healthcare providers to “care for those in need” and the definition of human rights.
In 1986 the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) was passed by Congress to ensure access to emergency services, regardless of a patient’s ability to pay for any Medicare participating facility. This law covers undocumented individuals and outlines emergency departments are required to screen all persons seeking care and ensure treatment is provided until the patient is considered stabilized. Under EMTALA, a medical emergency is considered:
- acute symptoms that with the absence of immediate medical attention could result in the following:
- placing the health of an individual in serious jeopardy,
- serious impairment of bodily functions,
- serious dysfunction of any bodily organ or part, or
- A pregnant woman with contractions with inadequate time to transfer to another hospital for delivery or a transfer might pose a threat to the health/safety of the woman or unborn child.
It is noted, the definition of “stabilization” is considered when the person’s medical emergency is resolved, even if the underlying condition continues to persist. If the emergency room where the patient sought care is unable to provide the necessary care to stabilize the patient, it is their duty to ensure transportation to an appropriate facility. As a part of the Medicate Modernization Act (MMA) funding has been set aside to compensate hospitals for expenses related to providing such care for individuals.
As a part of the screening conducted at the emergency room, it is the provider’s responsibility to determine if the individual is experiencing an acute emergency. If it is determined the issue is not an emergency, the provider is not legally obligated to treat the individual seeking care. If an emergency room were to refuse an individual care based on their ability to pay, legal implications can apply for the facility. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid noted >2k violations from the years 2002-2015, averaging >170 violations per year. Penalties from the Office of Inspector General can be issues and include the following:
- Termination of their Medicare agreement,
- Monetary fines of up to $50k for each violation,
- Lawsuits in a civil court for personal injury,
- The hospital that received the patient based on the failure of another hospital’s compliance can sue to recover costs, or
- The citation of a violation (regardless of the impact to the individual refused care).
This topic raises several concerns regarding the provider’s obligation to care for patients in need and the ethical oath of the profession. Is it a human right to receive emergency care, if needed? According to the laws noted above, the response would be “yes”, and appropriate penalties apply when individuals are refused care based on their ability to pay for services. Unfortunately, this does not stop these instances from happening in our society today.
Hoffman, B. (2018). Undocumented, Uninsured, Unafraid. Dissent (00123846), 65(2), 34–40.
Insure.com. (2016, July 12). Emergency room care: Know your rights. Retrieved from https://www.insure.com/health-insurance/emergency-rights.html