Here is the Question
Unionization & Enforceable Labor Standards in the Global Market:
Globalization presents new frontiers and challenges for labor organizations. These changes include westernized labor mindsets being introduced into foreign cultures, which often collide with pre-existing organized labor in the host countries. Discuss why globalization has profound implications for domestic employment issues and whether these implications suggest an enforceable labor standard (a social clause) be added to free trade agreements. If so, what should the standards be and how should they be enforced?
This is what student posted. You are replying to these two students. reply to 2 classmates’ threads. Each thread must include 2 citations from scholarly/peer-reviewed sources in addition to the text and relevant scriptural integration, all in current APA format. Replies must be at least 150 words and include at least 1 citation from scholarly/peer-reviewed sources in addition to the text and relevant scriptural integration in current APA format.
First Student-Sherry Miller
“Globalization is increased economic integration among countries, and it is one of the most important pressures on labor relations – and employment more generally – in the United States and around the world in the 21st century” (Budd, 2013, p. 385). Globalization is the form of integration in which all countries follow one rule. The idea is for all to become one and follow the same processes. Free trade is the process of eliminating all trade obstacles. “Fair trade is the incorporation of labor, environmental, public health, and other standards into the trade agreements and the ability to impose trade sanctions on countries that violate these standards” (Budd, 2013, p. 394). Globalization lessens labor’s trading influence while free trade throughout countries permits consumers and producers an advantage from specialization (Budd, 2013, p. 387). Adding these standards prevents social dumping and avoids “race to the bottom” in wages and working conditions (Budd, 2013, p. 394).
Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves; otherwise we will be scattered over the face of the whole earth.” But the Lord came down to see the city and the tower the people were building. The Lord said, “If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.” So the Lord scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. That is why it was called Babel[a]—because there the Lord confused the language of the whole world. From there the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth (Genesis 11: 4-9 NIV).
The attempted construction of the Tower of Babel in rebellion to God’s command to fill the earth is a form of Globalization. In response to the uprising, God confused their languages, and forced them to scatter and settle around the earth. “Man’s plans will never thwart God’s purposes. God had commanded mankind to “fill the earth” (Genesis 9:1). Man preferred to cloister rather than to comply with God’s command to spread out. In spite of man’s greatest efforts, God’s purposes prevailed” (11. The Unity of Unbelief (Genesis 11:1-9), 2015).
11. The Unity of Unbelief (Genesis 11:1-9). (2015). Retrieved from Bible.org: https://bible.org/seriespage/11-unity-unbelief-genesis-111-9
Budd, J. (2013). Labor Relations Striking a Balance (Forth Edition). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Second Student- Vicky Best
Unionization and enforceable labor standards are practically non-existent in the global marketplace. Budd (2013) indicate, “In the 21stcentury, routine jobs can be shifted to low-cost countries, U.S. companies can no longer be competitive in the global marketplace using traditional mass manufacturing methods” (Budd, 2013, p. 354). One study on the global economy by George Tsogas (2009) states, “as the global economy diminishes the regulatory capacity of the nation-state, transnational forms of labour regulation are created (or attempted) to fill the vacuum” (Tsogas, 2009, p. 75). As noted in Angel Torres (2014) article, “unlike first world countries, developing nations continuously struggle to enforce labor right provisions attached as conditions in trade agreements” (Torres, 2014, p. 617). Torres eludes to trade agreements that lack basic enforcement of not only human rights…but labor rights as well (Torres, 2014).
To add, enforceable labor standards should be required globally. Noting that, different countries with different policies in place would require additional provisions for globally standardized labor laws (Tsogas, 2009). The “fifty-eight Federal Trade Agreements (FTA) containing labor provisions” noted by Torres is an indication that global labor concerns is an issue of interest (Torres, 2014). Another concern in globalization is at the company level. Budd identifies centralization and decentralization as a means of tension for international managers (Budd, 2013, p. 411). On the one hand, they strive at “intergration and efficiency” and “local responsiveness and autonomy” on the other (Budd, 2013, p. 411).
The global marketplace is a diverse realm that can be made stronger for all countries. First implement and then enforce labor laws universally, and if needed, to accommodate differing country policies, add to the already universal labor laws thus ensuring global fairness.
Although some countries are undeveloped, it is the developed countries duty to help one another. Hebrew 10:24-25 which says “And let us consider how to stir up one another to love and good works, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day drawing near” (ESV). In addition, the Bible tells Christians to “open your mouth for the mute, for the rights of all who are destitute. Open your mouth, judge righteously, defend the rights of the poor and needy” (Proverbs 31:8-9, ESV).
Budd, J. W. (2013). Labor Relations Striking a Balance. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Holley, S., Maconachie, G., & Goodwin, M. (2015). Government procurement contracts and minimum labour standards enforcement: Rhetoric, duplication and distraction? The Economic and Labour Relations Reveiw, 26, 43-59. doi:doi:10.1177/1035304614546450
Torres, A. (2014). A Wishful Thought: Enforceability and Avoidance of Labor Provision in Foreign Trade Agreements. Law and Business Review of the Americas, 20(4), 617-645. Retrieved August 5, 2015, from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/docview/1678628763?pq-origsite=summon&accountid=12085
Tsogas, G. (2009). International labour regulation: what have we really learnt so far? Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 64(1), 75-94. Retrieved August 5, 2015, from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/ps/i.do?p=AONE&u=vic_liberty&id=GALE|A197927550&v=2.1&it=r&userGroup=vic_liberty&authCount=1#