It was not until recent years that state and local governments could be sued due to the doctrine of sovereign immunity. The doctrine of sovereign immunity stated that a governing body of its representatives could not be sued because it made the laws in the first place (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). Even while confined in prison, inmates still have civil rights. Federal and state prisoners can file lawsuits with the federal courts stating that their civil rights have been violated by correction officials (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). However, not all cases brought to court by inmates are a violation against their rights and at the end of the Prisoners’ Rights Era, courts had become less sympathetic to prisoners’ claims, as many were frivolous lawsuits (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). In order to protect correctional officers changes were made at the state and federal level which have slowed the number of case prisoners have brought against officers (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). The Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act was changed in 1980 which forces a prisoner to use all means necessary at the state level before a writ of habeas corpus can be filed at the state level (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). It can be challenging to sue government officials for allege misconduct and one hurdle that must overcome in order to do so is the qualified immunity doctrine that shields the government official from lawsuits unless the defendant’s conduct violated a right constitutional, or the right was clearly established at the time the misconduct took place (Lass, 2018).
Lass, Z. (2018). Lowe V. Raemisch: Lowering the Bar of the Qualified Immunity Defense. Denver Law Review, 96(1), 177-201.
Sovereign immunity is an English law based on a common law principle that the King could not do any wrongdoing, and this law applies to state and federal governments (“Sovereign Immunity,” n. d.). Therefore, sovereign immunity says that the federal and state government cannot be sued without their permission (“Sovereign Immunity,” n. d.). The reasoning behind this law was that if the individuals who made these laws should not be compelled by it (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020). The federal and state governments can waive their right to sovereign immunity through the Federal Tort Claims Act, which put aside federal immunity for certain wrong claims (“Sovereign Immunity,” n. d.). The Westfall Act says that a feral worker cannot be prosecuted while employed. Some states have complicated laws that have prohibited immunity through governmental action.
Inmates can sue correctional officers. However, the inmate must prove lawsuit. The correctional officer and the correctional institute must prove that they followed proper procedures and obeyed to policies, and that each staff member was well supervised and prepared (Cornelius, 2016). In addition, sovereign immunity does not preclude an injured private citizen from suing a state officer and acquiring an order that the officer stop conduct that breaks federal law (“Sovereign Immunity,” n. d.). In 2016, President Barack Obama signed a law to protect federal correctional officers, which is called the Eric Williams Correctional Officers Protection Act, which says that Bureau of Prisons must give non-lethal pepper spray to guards in medium to high security prisons, so they have a way to defend themselves (“Obama Signs,” 2016). In addition, some states have adopted federal liberty practices such as good faith and reasonable belief principles to protect specific officers (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020).). There was a short case of Ali v. Federal Bureau of Prisons where Ali sued the prison and the correctional officers; However, the courts held that the correctional officers are federal employees and are immune from that type of lawsuit (Schmalleger and Smykla, 2020).
Cornelius, G. (2016). How corrections officers can avoid being sued by an inmate.
Obama signs Correctional Officers Protection Act into law. (2016, March 10). The Daily Item.
Schmalleger, F., Smykla, J. O. (2020). Corrections in the 21st century (9th ed.). McGraw Hill Education
Sovereign immunity. (n.d.). https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/sovereign_immunity
Sovereign immunity law and legal definition. (n.d.).
Traditional economics takes on the economic outcome. Therefore, the classical concept of economic factors that render the pretension’s outcome is based on the idea that prosperity can maintain control and withstand out various situations. It centers on the assumption that cooperative diversity focuses on the primary difference between the two theories: the premise and exercise of free will. However, the neoclassical revolution looks at specific elements that may hinder the practice of free will (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018). I decided to discuss the high demand for Lysol products. The pandemic created a fear that the classical economics broad approach to the increased market value of Lysol goods during the Covid-19 pandemic based on the severity of the situation, which made an impulse that considered business to increase production cost and take advantage of consumers.
On the other hand, the need for protection from the virus would be seen as a neoclassical economics primary approach and interest. That created a supply and demand situation for a higher market within limited productive resources like Lysol that render the market with restricted goods. Neoclassical economics mixes the cost of production concept from classical economics that takes on efficiency, total capacity, and potential decision-making from individual consumers (CFI, n.a.).
The covid-19 pandemic created a significant predicament throughout the country that affected millions of people as the rise of the Covid-19 virus spread throughout the country while continues to cause death and economic shortcoming among families. This idea indicates that the virus’s issues forced the country’s economic model to enable the government to shut down the country while shifting the business to change outcomes while, in some circumstances taking advantage of society (Baqaee and Emmanuel, 2020). Therefore, when it comes to a crisis, various pressure is placed on people to do things they usually would not do. Example go out and stock up on tissue paper, Lysol, and bleach products. Therefore, business owners take advantage of the circumstances, and increase products like Lysol to excessive amounts is a perfect example of economic supply and demand. That in many outcomes create the illegal practices of price increase of different products based on the pandemic’s concern. Yet, the struggle for a basic necessity like tissue paper, Lysol, and hand sanitizer is still in high demand as store shelve are empty which in all aspects is part of today’s current reality.
Baqaee, D., And Emmanuel, F. (2020). Supply versus demand: Unemployment and inflation in the Covid-19 recession, https://voxeu.org
Cfi. (n.a.). What is Neoclassical Economics https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com
Encyclopedia Britannica, (2018). Development Theory, https://www. britannica.com
According to Karmen (2019), the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) was redesigned in the early 1990s. The rate of the aggravated assaults rose in the early 1990s because of the new measurement methods. However, Karmen (2019) states that by the end of the 1990s, there was a dramatic improvement in the level of serious violence. The author also states that between the years 1993 and 2009, after the survey was redesigned, the cases of aggravated assaults disclosed to the NCVS plummeted by approximately 60 percent. The data from the UCR shows that after years of rising numbers of serious attacks, the cases of felonious attacks were highest in the year 1993. The report shows that the number of felonious attacks was 430 per 100,000 people. However, the level of violence continued to decline in the second half of the 1990s.
The trend in cases of robbery also rose in the 1990s then started to decline. According to Karmen (2019), robbery is one of the most common crimes. The UCV and NCVS data show that the cases of robbery were record high in the early 1990s. However, the cases of robberies began to decline over the twenty-first century. Karmen (2019) states that in 2016, the cases of robbery had declined to 100 people per 100,000 people. Similar to robbery, the trend in the cases of burglaries has also been declining since the 1990s. The cases of robbery were highest in the 1980s, with records of 1685 cases per 100,000 people. They have declined to less than 470 people per 100,000 people in 2016.
Among the three trends, the cases of robbery have continued to decline in the present day. Data also shows that the downward trend has been consistent through the 21st century. In 2013, the UCR data, which combined shootings, stabbings, and other felonious acts, had declined to 230 people per 100,000 people. According to a Pew Research center’s recent study, robbery cases have declined by over 49 percent between 1993 and 2019 (Gramlich, 2020). The author further states that the rate of robbery had declined to approximately 81.6 per 100,000 people.
Gramlich, J. (2020). What the data says (and doesn’t say) about crime in the United States. Pew Research Center, 20.
Karmen, A. (2019). Crime victims: An introduction to victimology. Cengage learning custom p.
Interpersonal violence can be described as a close companion violence including domestic violence or even battery. Interpersonal violence is also a behavior pattern that can be linked to control or authority over someone. This can be done using tactics such as intimidation, threats or even fear resulting in violence.
On the other hand, women are commonly targeted, although this may be true, other people can also be targets. For instance, disabled people, people of the LGBTQ group as well as seniors. These people are often targeted due to status, age, sexual orientation or physical strength or weaknesses. However, the signs of abuse can range from emotional abuse (down talking or belittling someone), physical abuse by someone who is easily irritated or easily tempered or even pressure you to do things you are uncomfortable with or don’t normally do.
To sum up everything that has been stated so far, based on the numerous signs of abuse, physical abuse would be the most prominent one today. I believe this is so, due to posts and videos via social media, news as well as everyday life, along with seeing things with your own eyes, physical abuse is something that is still at an all time high. Interpersonal abuse between domestic partners includes a range of abusive and neglectful behaviors perpetrated by someone who is or was involved in an intimate relationship with the victim. (Cohn, F., Eshilian-Oates, L.,2014, pg. 69)”. Along with murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, and theft can be traced back several thousand years. Hence, victims of interpersonal violence and theft were “discovered” ages ago, in the sense that they were formally identified by laws and officially recognized (Karmen, Andrew. Pg.24.”
Cohn, F., and Eshilian-Oates, L. (2014). II. Abuse between Domestic Partners. In B. Jennings (Ed.), Bioethics (4th ed., Vol. 1, 62-69). Macmillan Reference USA. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3727400028/GVRL?u=tel_a_bethelc&sid=GVRL&xid=e118d18d
Karmen, Andrew. An Introduction to Victimology. Edition. Retrieved from https://www.savantlearningsystems.com/#/books/