Need a summary and all these questions answered for all 3 articles attached.

Need a summary and all these questions answered for all 3 articles attached.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477640/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470933/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450835/