Prevention marks the beginning of a new stage after the first epidemiological revolution, which increases with the second epidemiological revolution.

The Following is another student post to wish i have to reply APA style. references and less than 10 % similarity. The due date is September 6.

 

Dianelis Pons

Community Nursing

Professor. Lisys Camacho

Florida National University

September 2020

The development of Public Hygiene stopped during feudalism and began to resurface with the Industrial Revolution (xviii) with Raus, Ramazini and, above all, Johan Peter Frank. The latter is considered the “Father of Public Health” and established the medical police. At that time is when the State, in order to conserve the productive forces, takes greater part in controlling water and cleaning, also adding some aspects of the way of life, such as control of food and occupational diseases (Bush, 2018).

The 19th century was one of great advances in medicine due to the appearance of medical equipment and the discoveries of bacteriology made by Pasteur in 1870 and Koch in 1882 (Bush, 2018). Together with the above and the appearance of social medicine, in the second half of this century, the development of public health is encouraged, expanding health measures by the States and beginning the development of health services, as happened in Russia in 1865 and in Germany in 1883 (Coovadia et al., 2009). In the first half of the 20th century, due to an awakening of interest in health, advances were made in this field and the ministries of public health emerged. In relation to the latter there is a historical fact of great importance when the first in the world was created in Cuba, as the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and later they emerged in Germany, England, France and others (Bush, 2018).

At this time authors such as Sigerist, Rosen, Lee and Jones stand out and one of the first definitions of public health emerges, at least one of the best known, made by the North American Winslow in 1920, which due to its importance is reproduced below:

“Public Health is the art of preventing diseases, prolonging life, promoting health and efficiency through the organized effort of the community for: environmental sanitation; Control of Communicable Diseases; education in personal Hygiene; organization of medical services and nursing for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of diseases and the development of the social mechanism that ensures each one an adequate standard of living for the preservation of health; organizing these benefits so that each citizen is in conditions of their right natural to health and longevity” (Coovadia et al., 2009).

Prevention marks the beginning of a new stage after the first epidemiological revolution, which increases with the second epidemiological revolution. Thus, public health continues to expand its field and its functions and integrates preventive care for people and that of the natural environment, the social environment, and also aspects of curative care (Coovadia et al., 2009).

There is currently a broad consensus that public health has become an integrative and multidisciplinary science (Craig & Smith, 1998). However, some differences still persist, such as in Canada and other Latin American countries. For most experts and specialists there is a consensus to consider Public Health, whose essence is the health of the population, as an integrating science of different related disciplines and others such as Economics, Administration, Social Sciences and the conduct (Sociology, Anthropology, Social Psychology) (Craig & Smith, 1998).

This broad, integrating conception of multiple public health sciences is one of its important aspects, which include: Epidemiology; Biostatistics; Biological Sciences; Public health engineering; Sociology; Economics and economics of public health; Social Sciences, including Behavioral Science, Political Science; Administration and others. In the category of public health, both the meaning of “health” and “public” must be analyzed (Craig & Smith, 1998). The word “public” is not related to the type of services (state, private, mixed or non-profit), but to the criterion that public health reaches the entire community and the individual without distinction, with equity. As for “health” it refers to both individual and collective health or disease (Craig & Smith, 1998). It also has the consideration that the definition of health and disease are not approached as 2 opposite categories or in a static way, but as a process: the health or disease process, which can be defined as “A process in relation to physical well-being , mental and social, that is individual, particular and global, dynamic and variable and consequence of multiple positive or negative factors” (Craig & Smith, 1998).

 References

Bush, M. (2018). Addressing the root cause: rising health care costs and social determinants of health. North Carolina medical journal, 79(1), 26-29.

Coovadia, H., Jewkes, R., Barron, P., Sanders, D., & McIntyre, D. (2009). The health and health system of South Africa: historical roots of current public health challenges. The Lancet, 374(9692), 817-834.

Craig, P. M., & Smith, L. N. (1998). Health visiting and public health: back to our roots or a new branch?. Health & Social Care in the Community, 6(3), 172-180.

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