What do hypoventilation and hyperventilation do to PaCO2 levels?

1 page 1 sentence for each question

  1. What are the mechanisms that result in dyspnea?
  2. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) is a result of: what disorder?
  3. _____ is generally relieved by sitting up in a forward-leaning position.
  4. Kussmaul respirations may be characterized which respiratory pattern?
  5. What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of Cheyne-Stokes respirations?
  6. Cyanosis generally develops when _______ g/dL of hemoglobin is desaturated, regardless of hemoglobin concentration.
  7. What do hypoventilation and hyperventilation do to PaCO2 levels?
  8. What is clubbing?
  9. How do high altitudes produce hypoxemia?
  10. How do pulmonary edema and pulmonary fibrosis cause hypoxemia?
  11. Alveolar dead space is a result of which disorder?
  12. Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration?
  13. In _____ pleural effusion, the fluid is watery and diffuses out of the capillaries as a result of increased blood pressure or decreased capillary oncotic pressure.
  14. What the causes of chest wall restriction?
  15. _____ atelectasis is the collapse of lung tissue caused from the lack of collateral ventilation through the pores of Kohn.
  16. In _____ bronchiectasis, both constrictions and dilations deform the bronchi.
  17. What are some similarities between silicosis and asbestosis?
  18. _____ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury.
  19. What are the causes of pulmonary edema?
  20. Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg.
  21. In ARDS, inflammatory mediators such as proteolytic enzymes, oxygen free radicals, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating factor are released by which cells?
  22. What is the cause of pulmonary edema in ARDS?
  23. In ARDS, what causes the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles to fill with fluid?
  24. Which type of pulmonary disease requires more force to expire a volume of air?
  25. Which immunoglobulin may contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma?
  26. Which inflammatory mediators are produced in asthma?
  27. _______ increases in asthma because of the effect of inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and IL-1.
  28. What are the clinical manifestations of asthma?
  29. The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with _______.
  30. Which bacteria become embedded in the airway secretions in chronic bronchitis?
  31. What are the clinical manifestations of chronic bronchitis?
  32. _____ involves an abnormally enlarged gas-exchanged system and the destruction of alveolar walls.
  33. What is the best way to delayed the progression of chronic bronchitis?
  34. How does smoking contributes to emphysema?
  35. What are the clinical manifestations of emphysema?
  36. What is the most common route of lower respiratory tract infection?
  37. What are the clinical manifestations of pneumonia?
  38. In tuberculosis, what is activated to attack the bacilli?
  39. What is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma called?
  40. Pulmonary hypertension results from which alteration?
  41. What are the clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension?

Chapter 37: Alterations of Pulmonary Function in Children

  1. How does chest wall compliance in infants compare to adults?
  2. Why is nasal congestion a serious threat to young infants?
  3. The risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) decreases for premature infants when they are born after _____ weeks of gestation.
  4. Which type of croup is most common?
  5. What are the clinical manifestations of croup?
  6. What is the chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?
  7. What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn?
  8. What is the primary problem in RDS of the newborn?
  9. What is the sequence of events after atelectasis develops in respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn?
  10. Bronchiolitis tends to occur during the first years of life and is most often caused by which infection?
  11. What are the clinical manifestations of bacterial pneumonia in children?
  12. Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma?
  13. Which T lymphocyte phenotype is the key determinant of childhood asthma?
  14. Which cytokines activated in childhood asthma produce an allergic response?
  15. Write a description of childhood asthma.
  16. Write a description of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
  17. What do fibroblast growth factors cause in ARDS?
  18. In ARDS, how does a diffuse pulmonary thrombosis contribute to pulmonary edema?
  19. Write a description of cystic fibrosis.
  20. What is the cause of cystic fibrosis (CF)?
  21. What are the abnormalities in cytokines found in children with cystic fibrosis?
  22. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs most often between _____ and _____ months of age.