26. What is the purpose of modern-day assessment centers?
A. To select officers for the military
B. To assess, identify and develop leadership potential
C. To select civil servants for the government
D. To select special agents and spies
27. What is the first step in improving the bench strength of the leaders within an organization?
A. To promote the right people
B. To cultivate employee loyalty
C. To be up-to-date with the latest developments in technology
D. To evaluate and reward its leaders
28. How can one differentiate between successful and unsuccessful leaders?
A. By the attributes of their followers
B. By the attributes they possess
C. By the productivity of their followers
D. By the behaviors they exhibit
29. What is a disadvantage of judging the effectiveness of a leader based on the subordinates’ ratings?
A. Results are due to factors beyond leaders’ control
B. There may be no links between ratings and unit performance
C. Raters’ unwillingness to provide tough feedback
D. Raters are unaware of true performance
30. What is the advantage of judging the effectiveness of a leader based on
A. Multiple raters
B. Subject of leaders’ behaviors
C. Frequently used
D. Actual results
31. Oftentimes these individuals are given lower performance appraisal ratings
because superiors do not want them to get promoted.
B. Results only managers
C. In name only managers
D. Competent managers
32. This phenomenon is becoming more prevalent as organizations move to- ward virtual teams or increase the number of people any one superior may supervise.
A. Superiors may be largely unaware or unfamiliar with a target leader’s
B. Superiors do not take the time to provide accurate performance ap- praisal ratings
C. Superiors have difficulty dealing with conflict
D. Superiors would rather give average ratings than deal with the emo- tions associated with unflattering ratings
33. An in-depth examination of a leader’s behavior in a particular set of
circumstances is a(n)
A. Case study
B. Correlational study
D. Nomothetic study
34. A politician’s advisor explains how demographic changes in the politician’s
district make it important for the politician to spend relatively more time in the district seeing constituents than she has needed to in the recent past. This is an example of
B. An inspirational appeal
C. A consultation
D. A rational persuasion
35. When a minister makes an impassioned plea to members of his
congregation about the good works which could be accomplished if a pro- posed addition to the church were built, he is
A. Making a personal appeal
B. Making an inspirational appeal
C. Making a rational persuasion
D. Using ingratiation
36. This occurs when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity.
A. Rational persuasion
D. Personal appeal
37. A salesperson’s good-natured or flattering banter with you before you make a decision about purchasing a product exemplifies
A. Rational persuasion
C. Personal appeal
38. Coalition tactics
A. Are used when agents seek the aid of others to influence the target
B. Occur when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity
C. Occur when the agent attempts to get you in a good mood before
making a request
D. Are used when agents ask another to do a favor out of friendship
39. _____ occur when agents make requests based on their position or author- ity.
A. Pressure tactics
B. Legitimizing tactics
D. Coalition tactics
40. A judge who gives a convicted prisoner a suspended sentence but tells him to consider the suspension a “sword hanging over your head” if he breaks the law again is using
A. Legitimizing tactics
B. Coalition tactics
C. Pressure tactics
D. Rational persuasion
41. Leaders who have only coercive or legitimate power may be able to use only _____ to influence followers.
A. Coalition tactics
B. Inspirational appeals
42. People typically use legitimizing or pressure tactics when
A. They are at a disadvantage
B. An influencer has the upper hand
C. They expect resistance
D. Parties are relatively equal in power
43. One of the predictions for what the _____ generation might look like as its
members move through their 20s is that they will develop community norms based on rules, standards and personal responsibility.
44. Moral reasoning refers to
A. The process leaders use to make decisions about values and ethics
B. The espoused values of individuals
C. The morality of individuals per se
D. The process leaders use to make decisions about ethical and unethical behaviors
45. In the pre-conventional level of moral development, the criteria for moral
A. Are based primarily on self-interest
B. Are based primarily on gaining others’ approval
C. Are based on universal, abstract principles
D. Are based primarily on behaving conventionally
46. What do leaders with strong recognition values value the most?
C. Meeting new people
D. Moral rules
47. Leaders with strong _____ values enjoy competition, being seen as influ- ential and drive hard to make an impact.
48. Film directors, musical conductors or marketing leaders are examples of
leaders with strong
A. Affiliation values
B. Power values
C. Security values
D. Aesthetics values
49. Leaders with these values are motivated by pleasure, variety and excite- ment and can often be found in the entertainment, hospitality, recreation, sports, sales or travel industries.
50. This is not an organizational level of leadership in the principle-centered