Write a 2–3-page assessment in which you address the topics of addictions and mental heath disorders by responding to a series of questions.

ASSESSMENT 2

Addiction

Overview

Write a 2–3-page assessment in which you address the topics of addictions and mental heath disorders by responding to a series of questions.

Addiction is not a new issue in our society. The impact on the addicted person’s life and that of his or her family differs dependent on the nature of the addiction, social norms, and laws. For example drunk driving only became a concern once moving vehicles became the norm. When reviewing the nature of addiction, the types of addiction, and the level of addiction, you will find it is a most complicated issue.

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By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:

•    Competency 1: Use information technology and tools to identify information in the domain of biological psychology. ▪ Discuss the physiological mechanisms that make people prone to addiction.
▪ Describe which mental disorders are commonly paired with some type of addiction.

•    Competency 2: Employ critical and creative thinking to evaluate problems, conflicts, and unresolved issues in the study of biological psychology. 
▪ Discuss addictions common in today’s society.

•    Competency 4: Assess the important theories, paradigms, research findings, and conclusions in biological psychology. 
▪ Discuss the mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society.

•    Competency 5: Apply knowledge of theory and research in the study of biological psychology to inform personal behavior and values, understand social policy, and develop professional goals and plans. 
▪ Describe the connection between addiction and mental disorders.

•    Competency 6: Communicate effectively in a variety of formats.

▪  Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a 
psychology professional.

▪  Use APA style and format. 
Context 
When dealing with addiction, the central hypothesis is that behavioral and cognition impairment caused by drug addiction may be due to the changes in the brain and the imbalance of neurotransmitters in the neuron. The physical change of the brain (usually referred to as neurodegeneration) makes some addictions lifelong. 
In addition, current scientific discoveries on the role of genes in addiction continues to further our understanding of heredity and environmental influences on learning and cognition behaviors. 
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Reward and Reinforcer 
Two key terms that demonstrate the mechanisms of drug addiction are reward and reinforcer . Reward refers to the positive effect an object or condition has on the user such as drugs, food,

 

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sexual contact, and warmth. A reinforcer is any object or event that increases the probability of the response that precedes it.

Schizophrenia

The term schizophrenia was coined in 1911 by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler from the combination of two Greek words meaning “split mind.” The term refers to the distortion of thought and emotion that are “split off” from reality. Schizophrenia is a disabling disorder characterized by perceptual, emotional, and intellectual deficits, loss of contact with reality, and inability to function in life. An estimated 3 million Americans will develop schizophrenia during their lifetime. About 100,000 patients take up 20 percent of psychiatric beds in the United States. Schizophrenia is more common in males, while other disorders, such as depression, are more common in females.

Questions To Consider

To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.

•    Why are some addictions more socially acceptable than other addictions?

•    Do you see mental disorders and addictions general and constant across all cultures, or are addictions and mental 
disorders more culturally based? Resources

•    Suggested Resources 
The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom. 
Capella Multimedia 
Click the links provided below to view the following multimedia pieces: 
• Addiction and Dependence Pathways | Transcript . • The Reward Pathway | Transcript .
• The Biological Sleep Clock | Transcript . 
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Library Resources 
The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:

•    Edwards, G. (2012). 100 years ago in addiction science . Addiction , 107 (8), 1530–1531. doi:10.1111/ j.1360-0443.2011.03712.x

•    Ardakani, A., Seghatoleslam, T., Habil, H., Jameei, F., & Rashid, R. (2013). A pilot study of prevalence of psychiatric disorder among drug-dependent patients: A report from an addiction centre in Malaysia . International Medical Journal , 20 (5), 537–541.

•    Unger, A., Starzer, B., & Fischer, G. (2012). Addiction is a psychiatric disorder – What have we learned from history? Addiction , 107 (6), 1043–1044. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03786.x

•    Marmorstein, N. R., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2012). Associations between substance use disorders and major depression in parents and late adolescent-emerging adult offspring: An adoption study . Addiction , 107 (11), 1965–1973. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03934.x

•    Smith, P. H., Homish, G. G., Giovino, G. A., & Kozlowski, L. T. (2014). Cigarette smoking and mental illness: A study of nicotine withdrawal . American Journal of Public Health , 104 (2), e127-e133. doi:10.2105/ AJPH.2013.301502

•    Bellamy, C. D., Rowe, M., Benedict, P., & Davidson, L. (2012). Giving back and getting something back: The role of mutual-aid groups for individuals in recovery from incarceration, addiction, and mental illness . Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery , 7 , 223–236. doi:10.1080/1556035X.2012.705703

•    Molina, B. G., Walther, C. P., Cheong, J., Pedersen, S. L., Gnagy, E. M., & Pelham, W. E., Jr. (2014). Heavy alcohol use in early adulthood as a function of childhood ADHD: Developmentally specific mediation by social impairment and delinquency . Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology , 22 (2), 110–121. doi:10.1037/ a0035656

       

•    Fjerkenstad, J. (2012). In my opinion: Treatment that mirrors the dark world . Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity , 19 , 156–160. doi:10.1080/10720162.2012.665292

•    Ziedonis, D. M., & Kolodziej, M. E. (2012). Innovative interventions for treating tobacco addiction among persons with co-occurring mental illness and addiction: New approaches to improve outcomes . Journal of Dual Diagnosis , 8 (2), 85–88. doi:10.1080/15504263.2012.672159

•    Sprenkle, D. H. (2012). Intervention research in couple and family therapy: A methodological and substantive review and an introduction to the special issue . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy , 38 (1), 3–29. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2011.00271.x

•    Rantala, V., & Sulkunen, P. (2012). Is pathological gambling just a big problem or also an addiction? Addiction Research and Theory , 20 (1), 1–10. doi:10.3109/16066359.2011.552819

•    Zweben, J. E., & Ashbrook, S. (2012). Mutual-help groups for people with co-occurring disorders . Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery , 7 , 202–222. doi:10.1080/1556035X.2012.705700

•    Benningfield, M. M., Dietrich, M. S., Jones, H. E., Kaltenbach, K., Heil, S. H., Stine, S. M.,…Martin, P. R. (2012). 
Opioid dependence during pregnancy: Relationships of anxiety and depression symptoms to treatment 
outcomes [Supplement]. Addiction , 107 , 74–82. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04041.x

•    Agrawal, A., Narayanan, G., & Oltmanns, T. F. (2013). Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at 
midlife in a community sample . Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment , 4 (1), 55–61. 
doi:10.1037/a0030224

•    Hartman, L. I., Ho, V., Arbour, S., Hambley, J. M., & Lawson, P. (2012). Sexual addiction and substance 
addiction: Comparing sexual addiction treatment outcomes among clients with and without comorbid 
substance use disorders . Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity , 19 , 284–309. doi:10.1080/10720162.2012.735515

•    Mistler, L. A., Brunette, M. F., Ferron, J. C., & Ziedonis, D. M. (2012). Shared decision making and behavioral 
support interventions for people with severe mental illness and tobacco dependence . Journal of Dual 
Diagnosis , 8 (2), 99–103. doi:10.1080/15504263.2012.671093

•    Schlosser, A. V., & Hoffer, L. D. (2012). The psychotropic self/imaginary: Subjectivity and 
psychopharmaceutical use among heroin users with co-occurring mental illness . Culture, Medicine and 
Psychiatry , 36 (1), 26–50. doi:10.1007/s11013-011-9244-9

•    Lembke, A. (2012). Time to abandon the self-medication hypothesis in patients with psychiatric disorders 
. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse , 38 (6), 524–529. doi:10.3109/00952990.2012.694532

•    Lundquist, R. S., Seward, G., Byatt, N., Tonelli, M. E., & Kolodziej, M. E. (2012). Using a multidisciplinary 
approach for pregnant women with nicotine dependence and co-occurring disorders . Journal of Dual Diagnosis , 8 (2), 158–167. doi:10.1080/15504263.2012.671119 
Course Library Guide 
A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the PSYC-FP4310 – Biological Psychology Library Guide to help direct your research. 
Internet Resources 
Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have been either granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.

•                      Russell, G., & Treasure, J. (2012). Bulimia nervosa – In 100 words . The British Journal of Psychiatry , 201 , 19. Retrieved from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/201/1/19.2.full

•                      National Institute on Drug Abuse. Club drugs . Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/club-drugs ▪ This NIDA Web site focuses on ecstasy (MDMA) and other drugs associated with club culture. There is a link 
to an excellent slide presentation on the neurobiology of ecstasy as well as trends and statistics on drug use by young people. 
Bookstore Resources 
The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore . When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation. 
• Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ▪ Chapter 5, “Drugs, Addiction, and Reward,” explores what happens to the brain during addiction.
▪ Chapter 7, “The Biology of Sex and Gender,” the author discusses the biological determination of sex.

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▪ Chapter 14, “Psychological Disorders,” covers how heredity and environment interact to produce psychological disorders.

Assessment Instructions

In 2–3-pages, address the following questions. Use the Capella library to research the material and support your answers. The following questions are the required headings; do not incorporate the questions into the content of the answers.

1.What are some of the addictions that are recognized in our society today? Discuss drugs and alcohol as well as other addictions people struggle with.

2.What are physiological mechanisms to addiction that makes it more likely in one person versus another person?

3.What is the connection between addiction and mental disorders? Explain.

4.What are some mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society?

5.Are any of these mental disorders commonly paired with some type of addiction?

6.Do any of these addictions or mental disorders seem to be more prevalent in one gender or the other? Explain.

Additional Requirements

•    Written Communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.

•    APA Formatting: Resources and citations should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.

•    Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12-point font, and double spaced. Use Microsoft Word to complete the 
assessment.

•    Length: Write a minimum of 2 pages, excluding the title page and reference page (150–300 words per question). 
Addiction Scoring Guide 
View Scoring Guide Use the scoring guide to enhance your learning. How to use the scoring guide

 

 

 

 

 

ADDICTION SCORING GUIDE GRADING RUBRIC

Criteria

Non-performance

Basic

Proficient

Distinguished

Criteria

Discuss the physiological mechanisms that make people prone to addiction.

Non performance

Does not discuss the physiological mechanisms that make people prone to addiction.

Basic

Discusses physiological mechanisms in general.

Proficient

Discusses the physiological mechanisms that make people prone to addiction.

Distinguished

Analyzes the physiological mechanisms that make people prone to addiction.

Criteria

Describe which mental disorders are commonly paired with some type of addiction.

Non performance

Does not describe which mental disorders are commonly paired with some type of addiction.

Basic

Describes mental disorders but does not connect them to addiction.

Proficient

Describes which mental disorders are commonly paired with some type of addiction.

Distinguished

Analyzes which mental disorders are commonly paired with some type of addiction.

Criteria

Discuss addictions common in today’s society.

Non performance

Does not discuss addictions common in today’s society.

Basic

Lists addictions common in today’s society.

Proficient

Discusses addictions common in today’s society.

Distinguished

Analyzes addictions common in today’s society.

Criteria

Discuss the mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society.

Non performance

Does not discuss the mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society.

Basic

Lists mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society.

Proficient

Discusses the mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society

Distinguished

Evaluates the mental disorders that are commonly seen in today’s society.

Criteria

Describe the connection between addiction and mental disorders.

Non performance

Does not describe the connection between addiction and mental disorders.

Basic

Describes addiction and mental disorders but does not make a connection.

Proficient

Describes the connection between addiction and mental disorders.

 

Distinguished

Evaluates the connection between addiction and mental disorders.

Criteria

Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional.

Non performance

Writing does not support a central idea. Does not use correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional.

Basic

Writing supports an idea but is inconsistent and contains major errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Proficient

Writing coherently supports a central idea with few errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional.

Distinguished

Writing is coherent, using evidence to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional.

Criteria

Use APA style and format.

Non performance

Does not use APA format and style.

Basic

Uses APA format and style but inconsistently and with errors.

Proficient

Uses APA format and style consistently and with few errors.

Distinguished

Uses correct APA format and style consistently and with no errors.