The Stroop Effect And Visual Perception
Write a 2-part assessment that discusses your experience with the Stroop Effect and concepts related to visual perception. This assessment should be a minimum of 4 pages long.
One of the central hypotheses in psychology is the relationship between stimulus and response. Sight and language are two human abilities relevant to the hypothesis of stimulus and response. Your understanding of these two abilities will help you build up a concept of the neural basis of human behaviors interacting with the world.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:
• Competency 2: Employ critical and creative thinking to evaluate problems, conflicts, and unresolved issues in the study of biological psychology.
▪ Discuss whether a person with dyslexia or a brain injury would have more or less trouble with completing the Stroop test.
▪ Discuss the results of the Stroop test.
• Competency 3: Examine the research methodology and tools typically associated with the study of biological psychology. ▪ Explain the role of the anterior cingulate in audiovisual processing, and the symptoms of brain injury to this area.
• Competency 4: Assess the important theories, paradigms, research findings, and conclusions in biological psychology. ▪ Define the problem of final integration of visual information. ▪ Discuss whether there is a problem with final integration of visual information.
• Competency 6: Communicate effectively in a variety of formats.
▪ Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics as expected of a psychology professional.
▪ Use APA style and format. Context Recent technologies employed in the study of the brain regions regulating speech are helping scientists better understand the neural basis of human behaviors interacting with the world. For example, MRI imaging studies are revealing other areas within the brain that may also play a role in language and reading. Another example is that both Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas are fundamental to speech ability, but the specific mechanism of how each plays into oral language is still unclear. This is still a new area that challenges psychologists, neurologists, and speech therapists. Humans use different parts of their brain to discriminate objects from people. In fact, we may have specialized neurons for recognizing faces. This relates to the main theme of this assessment: vision and visual perception. Many questions about human vision are unanswered. For example, different areas of the brain respond differently to visual recognition tasks, but how and why these areas cooperate to process visual information remains unclear. Another example: The visual cortex contains several layers, the functional roles of which are the subject of intense investigation. Questions include, “Why might the brain specialize to the point where a single neuron is dedicated to the recognition of a specific object or person?” and “What factors or cues do you think would influence how these neurons specialize and what they ultimately respond to?”
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Questions To Consider
To deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.
• Do you think, with the differences in the processing of sensory input, all of us experience the world (that is, colors and smells) differently? Is it possible that the perception of sensory input is different for every person? If this is the case, then how can we know if there is a problem with final integration?
• How does the brain process what we see in the world? Resources Suggested Resources The following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom. Capella Resources Click the links provided to view the following resources: • Stroop Handout 1 . • Stroop Handout 2 . Show More Library Resources The following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:
• Mueller, J. A., & Dollaghan, C. (2013). A systematic review of assessments for identifying executive function impairment in adults with acquired brain injury . Journal of Speech, Language, And Hearing Research , 56 (3), 1051–1064.
• Constantinidou, F., Wertheimer, J. C., Tsanadis, J., Evans, C., & Paul, D. R. (2012). Assessment of executive functioning in brain injury: Collaboration between speech-language pathology and neuropsychology for an integrative neuropsychological perspective . Brain Injury , 26 (13/14), 1549–1563. doi:10.3109/02699052.2012.698786
• Spitz, G., Ponsford, J. L., Rudzki, D., & Maller, J. J. (2012). Association between cognitive performance and functional outcome following traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal multilevel examination . Neuropsychology , 26 (5), 604–612. doi:10.1037/a0029239
• McDonald, S., Gowland, A., Randall, R., Fisher, A., Osborne-Crowley, K., & Honan, C. (2014, May 12). Cognitive factors underpinning poor expressive communication skills after traumatic brain injury: Theory of mind or executive function? Neuropsychology . Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/neu0000089
• Hegedish, O., & Hoofien, D. (2013). Detection of malingered neurocognitive dysfunction among patients with acquired brain injuries: A Word Memory Test study . European Journal of Psychological Assessment , 29 (4), 253–262. doi:10.1027/1015-5759/a000154
• Yungher, D., & Craelius, W. (2012). Improving fine motor function after brain injury using gesture recognition biofeedback . Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology , 7 (6), 464–468. doi:10.3109/17483107.2011.650782
• Mendez, M. F., Owens, E. M., Berenji, G., Peppers, D. C., Liang, L., & Licht, E. A. (2013). Mild traumatic brain injury from primary blast vs. blunt forces: Post-concussion consequences and functional neuroimaging . NeuroRehabilitation , 32 (2), 397–407.
• Yi, A., & Dams-O’Connor, K. (2013). Psychosocial functioning in older adults with traumatic brain injury . NeuroRehabilitation , 32 (2), 267–273.
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• Cooper, D. B., Chau, P. M., Armistead-Jehle, P., Vanderploeg, R. D., & Bowles, A. O. (2012). Relationship between mechanism of injury and neurocognitive functioning in OEF/OIF service members with mild traumatic brain injuries . Military Medicine , 177 (10), 1157–1160. doi:10.7205/MILMED-D-12-00098
Course Library Guide
A Capella University library guide has been created specifically for your use in this course. You are encouraged to refer to the resources in the PSYC-FP4310 – Biological Psychology Library Guide to help direct your research.
Access the following resources by clicking the links provided. Please note that URLs change frequently. Permissions for the following links have been either granted or deemed appropriate for educational use at the time of course publication.
• Segre, L. (n.d.). Human eye anatomy: Parts of the eye . All About Vision . http://www.allaboutvision.com/ resources/anatomy.htm
• Kolb, H. (2014). Photoreceptors . Webvision . Retrieved from http://webvision.med.utah.edu/book/part-ii-anatomy- and-physiology-of-the-retina/photoreceptors/ Bookstore Resources The resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore . When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation. • Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ▪ Chapter 9, “Hearing and Language,” explores the auditory mechanism and how it works. ▪ Chapter 10, “Vision and Visual Perception,” focuses on eye structure and the major theories of color and form vision. Assessment Instructions This assessment has two parts, Part A and Part B. Please complete this assessment in one document. You are required to use headings that stand alone and that are not incorporated into the content of the answers. Required headings have been provided for Part A, but you will need to use the questions from Part B as the stand-alone headings. Part A The famous “Stroop Effect” is named after J. Ridley Stroop, who discovered this strange phenomenon in the 1930s. For this task, words are printed in various colors. It is easy to name the printed colors of the words if the words are not color related or if each word is the name of the color in which it is printed; however, the task is very difficult when the words are color names that conflict with their printed color, for example, RED printed in blue ink. The discordant information (what the words say and the color of the print) produces interference in the brain. There are two hypotheses that may explain the Stroop effect:
1.Speed of Processing Hypothesis: the interference occurs because words are read faster than colors are named.
2.Selective Attention Hypothesis: the interference occurs because naming colors requires more attention than reading words.
The anterior cingulate is hypothesized to play a role in this task. If you wish, you can research images from MRI scans of what happens in the brain during a Stroop Test.
To inform your assessment, you may want to complete the following tasks. You will need someone to assist you.
1.Open Stroop Handout 1 (linked in the Resources). Ask someone to time this exercise with a stopwatch while you complete it. Begin by naming out loud as many of the COLORS on Handout 1 as fast as you can in 20 seconds. If you make an error, correct it before moving on to the next word. Ask your assistant to keep track of how many colors you name correctly. Write down the results.
2.Open Stroop Handout 2 (linked in the Resources). Repeat the same task. Name as many colors on the handout out loud and as fast as you can in 20 seconds. Write down the results.
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As an alternative, you may use the Internet to find information about the Stroop test, such as a demo video or articles that describe how it works and the various results people who have taken the test have experienced.
After you have finished the two tasks listed above or conducted your own research on the Stroop test, respond to the following. Use the headings below to organize this part of your paper.
1.Based on your own experience with the Stroop test or the research you conducted about it, explain which of the two tasks above would be harder and why.
2.Briefly explain the role of the anterior cingulate in audiovisual processing and the symptoms of brain injury to this area. Use the Capella library to research the material and support your answers.
3.Discuss whether a person with dyslexia or a brain injury would have more or less trouble with this task. Comment on how someone would do on this task if he or she did not speak English. What other observations did you have?
Below are the required headings for Part A of this assessment. These should stand alone and should not be incorporated into the content of the answer:
• Which task would be harder? Why? • What is the role of the anterior cingulate in audiovisual processing and the symptoms of brain injury to this area? • Discuss whether a person with dyslexia or a brain injury would have more or less trouble with this task. • How would someone do on this task if he or she did not speak English? • Other observations.
The blind spot is the area on the retina without photoreceptors. Therefore, the part of an image that falls on this region will not be seen. It is in this region that the optic nerve exits the eye on its way to the brain. Humans may use different parts of their brain to discriminate objects from people. In particular, we may have specialized neurons for recognizing faces.
For this part of the assessment, answer the following questions. Use the Capella library to research the material and support your answers. Format your paper by using the questions as headings; do not incorporate the questions into the content of the answers.
1.What is the problem of final integration of visual information?
2.What kind of problem(s) does this present regarding our understanding of how the brain works?
3.Is this a problem that needs to be solved?
4.What research has been conducted into this issue? Are there any recent papers in the scientific literature that address this issue?
• Written Communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
• APA Formatting: Resources and citations should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.
• Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12-point font, and double spaced. Use Microsoft Word to complete the assessment.
• Length: Write a minimum of 4 pages, excluding the title page and reference page.